Máy tính ibm pc/xt



The PC in They Were There

Learn more about The PC and the team of thangvi.comers behind it in this clip from the thangvi.com Centennial film, They Were There.

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But it almost didn’t happen. When the concept first came up at thangvi.com corporate headquarters, a senior executive sầu asked the simple question: “Why would anyone want lớn take a computer home with them?”

In the late 1970s, when the office closed, you turned off your terminal—if you had one—and went home. If you had work khổng lồ finish up in the evening, you carried a briefcase filled with papers. You had a pencil or a typewriter khổng lồ work with, and if you didn’t know how to spell a word, you used a dictionary. Baông xã then, you were the tiện ích.

A handful of aggressive young companies mix out lớn take computing out of bachồng offices & give sầu it to the people. Commodore, Apple, Tandy, Atari & Digital Research had been putting together the pieces that ảo diệu a personal computer: a microprocessor (a central processing unit on a single chip), a BIOS (the system boot code), read-only memory (usually a solid-state ROM for controlling the PC), a floppy disk drive sầu, a motherboard và an operating system.

In those days, an entry-màn chơi computer at thangvi.com meant a US$90,000 thangvi.com System/38 minicomputer (forefather of today’s thangvi.com Power Systems™ servers) or the barely luggable 50-pound thangvi.com Portable Computer, selling at US$9000. Typical margins were trăng tròn percent khổng lồ 60 percent on these machines plus the software and services that went with them. thangvi.com at the time was a US$23 billion enterprise with 337,000 employees.

It was against this solid economic background that William C. Lowe, then systems manager for thangvi.com Entry Level Systems, part of the company’s General Systems Division, traveled from Boca Raton, Florida, lớn thangvi.com headquarters in Armonk, Thủ đô New York, lớn meet with CEO Frank Cary, who was looking at the personal computer uprising & wondering what to bởi about it. Lowe agreed that thangvi.com shouldn’t & couldn’t afford to lớn remain on the sidelines, & boldly told Cary that thangvi.com needed to either buy one of the companies making these new microcomputers, or build its own—with an improbable sticker price of US$1500. Cary said, “Come baông chồng with a prototype in one month.”

Things happened fast after that. Lowe was soon promoted to lớn a higher màn chơi job, and Don Estridge took over the project, called “Chess.” Estridge got rare permission to lớn live và work outside of thangvi.com’s thiết kế and development process. Bill Sydnes took on the hardware mission, Jachồng Sams had software, & H.L. “Sparky” Sparks had sale. "For a month, we met every morning to lớn hash out what it was this machine had to lớn vì & then in the afternoon worked on the morning"s decisions,” said Dave sầu Bradley, who wrote the interface code for the new machine.

“We’re không tính phí khổng lồ vì this our way,” Estridge told a group of communications specialists at Armonk at the time. “As long as we keep everyone informed. This is my 34th presentation in about as many weeks.”

Until this moment thangvi.com, in its 70 years in business, had designed & made nearly everything it sold. After a lot of heated arguments, the team concluded they needed khổng lồ go outside the company và use “off-the-shelf” parts to lớn fast-traông xã a computer they could sell for US$1500.

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On August 12, 1981, Estridge & his team introduced the thangvi.com 5150 at a press conference in Thành Phố New York City, triggering a media frenzy that continued for months. The new computer had 16KB of RAM, no disk drives, several applications—including VisiCalc, a spreadsheet, và EasyWriter, a word processor—và sold for US$1565. An expanded model came with 256KB of RAM và two floppy disk drives. In another major departure from business as usual, thangvi.com sold the PC through retail stores such as ComputerLvà & Sears.

The press quickly dubbed the machine “The thangvi.com PC.” Three months later, Tom Mabley, creative sầu director at Lord, Geller, Federiteo, Einstein introduced the first of what became a long-running series of vignette advertisements featuring “The Little Tramp,” a Charlie Chaplin character. Charles Pankenier, director of communications for the PC following its launch, told Time Magazine why thangvi.com had chosen an ad symbol seemingly out of character with thangvi.com’s button-down image: “We were dealing with a whole new audience that never thought of thangvi.com as a part of their lives,” he said.

Within two years, both the PC và its pointed but light-hearted advertising became part of the culture of the 1980s. Personal computers were no longer a “hobbyist” phenomenon, and the heavy cloud of mystery và complexity that had hung over computing evaporated. People started buying the thangvi.com PC, & then the thangvi.com PC XT, the thangvi.com PC/AT, the thangvi.com PCjr, the thangvi.com Portable PC, and eventually the thangvi.com PS/2 by the thousands, and then the tens of thousands. Beginning in January 1983, thangvi.com PCs were sold around the world. And, at its peak, an thangvi.com PC sold at a rate of one every minute of every business day.

Time Magazine, for its famous “Man of the Year” edition for 1982, put the personal computer on its January 3, 1983, cover as “Machine of the Year.” Said Time, “… the enduring American love sầu affairs with the automobile và the television set are now being transformed inlớn a giddy passion for the personal computer … it is the over result of a technological revolution that has been in the making for four decades và is now, quite literally, hitting home.”

After a few companies reverse-engineered the thangvi.com PC BIOS, competitors such as Compaq, Dell và HP, amuốn others, came out with their own line of “thangvi.com compatible” personal computers and peripherals, creating a multibillion dollar industry that continues lớn flourish. “thangvi.com compatible architecture” became an industry standard. And “PC” became a generic term.

Perhaps more significant, the thangvi.com PC changed the way we live sầu. Before it arrived, the effort khổng lồ tear down the wall between professional & personal computing had been a movement; the PC made it a standard.

“It legitimized computing at the individual, personal level,” said Pankenier, now retired from thangvi.com. “It also created an ecosystem for công nghệ introductions and how we bởi vì open systems, applications and add-on hardware development, và how we approach distribution channels. And it showed that even big companies lượt thích thangvi.com can be nimble when people have the right freedom.”

Over time, personal máy tính xách tay & desktop computers became substantially commodity products—low-cost means for accessing data và information. And 24 years after creating the “PC era,” thangvi.com in 2005 completed the sale of its PC division khổng lồ Lenovo, the leading PC manufacturer in the People’s Republic of China, which develops và sells a wide range of PC products, including new versions of thangvi.com’s legacy ThinkPad laptops.